What Causes Cysts on Ovaries ? Types of Cyst | Foods to avoid

what causes ovarian cyst pain
what causes ovarian cyst pain
What causes cysts on ovaries?

Menstrual Pain Could Be Early Signs of Cysts on ovaries

Cysts, fluid-filled sac is feared by most women. People would normally associate a cyst with lower abdominal pain and difficulty of having children. Menstrual pain can indeed be an early sign of a cyst. "In many cases, cysts can automatically disappear," said Dr. Caroline.

Cysts can appear in several parts of the body, not just in the womb. There are cysts found in breast, thyroid tissue, skin, knot, nerves, and eyes. But in most cases, cysts are found in the ovary (ovarian cysts).

Each woman has two ovaries, on the right and left which actually have hazelnut size. Each ovary contains thousands of immature eggs, often called a follicle.
Follicles are fluid-filled structure that become the growth place of egg. 1 follicle 1 egg. Each month these follicles enlarge and one of them very quickly swell and become mature egg.

In the event of ovulation, a mature egg is out of the ovary and moves into the uterus through the fallopian tubes. If a mature egg is not fertilized, the follicle will shrink and disappear within 2-3 weeks. This process will be repeated according to menstrual cycle of a woman. If there is interference in this cycle process, then it is likely a cyst can occur. Cysts form when follicles stop growing too early. Instead of bursting to release the egg, they form swollen egg chambers (cysts).

Could shrink
Ovarian cysts are common in the reproductive period. However, it could be formed between puberty and menopause, even during pregnancy. Usually, cysts can shrink or automatically disappear after menopause, due to declining ovarian activity.

Types of Cyst

Ovarian cysts consists of various types, such as functional cyst, dermoid cyst, chocolate (endometriosis) cyst and Bartholdi’s gland cyst (cystadenoma). Until now, it's still not known how cysts occur. Usually they grows very slowly and often occur malignancy in the age over 45 years. Of the four cysts, the most widely and frequently shrink itself by improving hormonal balance is a functional cyst.

Functional Cyst
Functional cyst formed from the tissue changes during the normal menstrual function. The normal cyst will shrink and disappear on their own within 2-3 menstrual cycles. Some of the examples of functional cysts are follicular cyst, corpus luteum cyst, theca lutein cyst or cysts that occur due to hormonal changes.

Follicles can be transformed into the corpus luteum and then release an egg to be fertilized, the corpus luteum degenerates (crushed and absorbed by the body). This is normal. However, sometimes after the egg is released, the discharge hole closed and tissues accumulate inside, causing the corpus luteum enlarges and becomes cysts. "This lutein cysts are benign and will disappear on their own. But these cysts can grow to a diameter of 4 inches or 10 centimeters and has the potential to bleed," Dr. Caroline added.

Functional cysts generally do not require treatment. However, the use of contraceptive pills can sometimes help to normalize menstrual cycle, and reduce the development of these cysts. "But if the cyst had enlarged more than 5 centimeters, it must quickly be taken, such as the removal of cysts with surgery," she explained.

Dermoid Cyst
Ovarian dermoid cyst is a cyst that contains a variety of tissues such as hair, nails, skin, teeth and others. These cysts can occur from childhood, may even be carried in the womb of his mother. These cysts are usually dry and does not cause symptoms, but can become large and cause pain.

Chocolate Cyst (Endometriosis cyst)
There is another cyst formed from the endometriosis tissue (tissue similar to the lining of the uterus wall grows outside of the uterus) that is attached to the ovary and develop into cysts. These cysts are often called chocolate cysts of endometriosis, as it contains the blood that coagulates and solidifies to reddish brown color. These cysts associated with endometriosis disease that causes painful menstruation and painful sexual intercourse.

"One should be aware of an endometriosis cyst. Because if it's growing bigger, cyst can rupture and become sticky," explains Dr. Caroline Tirtajasa, Sp.OG

One more type of cyst is a cystadenoma. Cysts that develop from cells on the outer layer of the surface of the ovary, usually are benign. Cystadenoma can grow large, so they have potential to become malignant and disrupt other organs and cause pain.

What causes cyst ?

Until now the cause of the cyst is not clear. But such cancer malignant cysts may arise due to genetic factors. If in a family there is a history of cancer, it is likely the offspring have an increased risk of cancer as well.
"Cysts grow on the inside of a woman's body, so it was not easy to determine the causes. Scientist should do thorough research to determine the causes," she said.
The cysts usually occur without symptoms. Patients generally only heard by accident about the cysts they had, while undergoing the examination of other diseases. In the case cyst had enlarged, it may cause pain in the lower abdomen or near the uterus.

Typical pain
Many women believe that the pain during menstruation should be watched out as one of the symptoms of the cyst. Is this true? When the ovarian cysts are from functional type, indeed they tend to cause pain. "And the pain that occurs before menstruation was the response of the high concentration of the hormone which causes bleeding during the menstrual cycle," said Dr. Caroline.

Other causes of menstrual pain can also be due to some specific types of cysts, such as endometriomas. In the development, it is also known as endometrioma or chocolate cysts, relating to health conditions endometriosis.

However, she added, it is not always pain during menstruation is an early symptom of cysts. You should do some checking to make sure. "One sure thing, the period pain that could be the sign of cyst is typical. Only felt in the lower abdomen and occur just when you're menstruating," she added.

Not All Cysts Disturb Fertility

Fertility problems in women are often associated with cysts. In fact, there is a presumption that a person exposed to cysts in the ovaries (ovarian cysts) would be difficult to have a child.
The opinion was not entirely true. In general, cysts are benign, small, and has no effect on fertility. Cysts will harm when the size is large.

Someone could be pregnant, although there is a cyst in her ovary. Moreover, there is a pair of a woman's ovaries. If one of them disrupted and not working, there is still one more so that pregnancy can still occur.

"The more precisely, large cyst can interfere with pregnancy, not fertility," says Dr. Caroline.
Cysts which have a diameter of more than 5 centimeters might twist in the event of pregnancy. As a result, the cysts rupture and cause very severe pain.

Endometriosis cysts can cause infertility because it can lead to stickiness. The stickiness cause the ovum pick-up (release of a mature egg), making it difficult for fimbriae (ends of the fallopian tubes) to capture egg. As a result, fertilization is unlikely.

In addition, the presence of endometriosis cysts will immunologically impair fertility. Fertility is also hampered due to the onset of immune reactions interfere with the function of the egg, sperm, and embryos naturally.

If left unchecked, endometriosis will become more severe and women will be more difficult to get pregnant. From the survey, 40 percent of women who hard to conceive are known to have endometriosis in her womb.

For that, we need laparoscopic surgery. After surgery, 70 percent of women with mild endometriosis (stage 1 and 2) able to conceive normally. In contrast, severe endometriosis (stage 3 and 4) would be difficult to conceive naturally despite been treated, except by means of artificial insemination or in vitro fertilization.
Endometriosis cysts may also interfere with sexual life because there will be pain during intercourse.

Laparoscopic Surgery 

Surgical therapy or surgery may be considered if cysts do not disappear, in large size, lead to complaints such as abdominal pain, menstrual pain, or cycle disorders and infertility. Compared with conventional methods (operate patients with a wide incision in the abdomen), laparoscopy is the best method (Cold Standard) that is more effective to remove the cyst.
Laparoscopy is a surgical technique that is performed by making two or three small holes (diameter 5-10 mm) around the patient's stomach. One hole in the belly button is used to enter a camera-equipped device to move the image in the monitor screen to the abdominal cavity, while the other two holes for other surgical equipment.

This technique is also called minimally invasive surgery. However, this technique remains risky for the patient, especially since at the time of surgery, the doctor who in charge requires space in the abdominal cavity, thus requiring carbon dioxide (CO2) to develop the abdominal cavity.
If the high pressure gas goes into the blood vessels, it could pose a risk of harm.

Actually, not all cysts threatening and cause death. In the functional cyst, the cyst can shrink even disappear by itself.

However, some types of cysts can potentially be enlarged and become ovarian cancer. One of the signs of ovarian cysts become malignant is when cyst enlargement is fast and in a short time.

The death rate from ovarian cancer is quite high because the disease is initially asymptomatic and do not cause complaints. Only when it reaches an advanced stage then the patients start to feel the symptoms. That is why the disease is called the silent killer.

Unfortunately, until now there has been no simple way of early detection to check for ovarian cancer malignancy. It is in contrast to cervical cancer (cervix) that can be detected early with a pap smear.

To find out early cysts, Dr. Caroline advises us to perform ultrasound examinations and regular pap smears once a year. With the examination, woman can determine the health of her womb. If cysts is detected, then it can be immediately known whether there is any possibility that the cyst is malignant neoplasm which can lead to ovarian cancer.
It is important since ovarian cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death after breast cancer and cervical cancer.

"In case of ovarian cancer, there is possibility that reproductive organs such as the ovaries or uterus must be removed, so ones cannot conceive," she said.

Foods to avoid to prevent ovarian cysts

Stay away from fatty foods

Do you know if the foods with high fat content can lead to cysts? For those who already have a cyst, stay away from fatty foods.

If you keep eating fatty foods and less fiber, the body will find it hard to break down excess fat. The condition can lead to hormone disruption.
Likewise, control your diet, eat regularly and stay away from synthetic additives in foods.

Another type of food that should be avoided is fast food. Fast food contains a lot of fat, especially the fried chicken dish.

The chicken used in fast food restaurants is a chicken injected with steroids so that it would be big fast, to meet the needs of the market. These injections are usually done on the neck or the wings.

Therefore, the two parts of the body contain the highest concentration of steroids. These steroids make our body growth fast.

When the steroid injected chicken is consumed by a woman, it would have a negative impact on hormones, thus making women more susceptible to uterine cysts.

"Because of that, stay away from fatty foods and fast foods because they can make the cyst larger. Cysts as if fertilized with fat, so that the development become faster," said Dr. Caroline.

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